Rubber Plantation in Northeast India, hopes vs. concerns

Jan 21 2012

By Achintya Kumar Sinha, IFS (Retd.)

Rubber, a major plantation crop in northeast India, had a quiet entry to this verdant land with the first plantation raised in Tripura in 1963 by Naresh Bhattacharjee, the venerable Forest Chief of the territory. Bhattacharjee had become a legend of sorts and stories grew around him. The one in this context goes like this. He believed that commercial success of rubber plantation in Kerala could be replicated in Tripura. Bhattacharjee advised the Rubber Board accordingly but the Board officials argued against citing the harsh winter and protracted dry season in Tripura. A seasoned forester known for his down-to-earth wisdom and tenacity, Bhattacharjee did not relent. He planted rubber in degraded forestland under a soil conservation scheme and monitored in person every aspect of its management, as if to prove a point. In a queer coincidence, the Soil Conservation Department of undivided Assam had also raised rubber plantations in a few locations soon thereafter, but it was in Tripura that its enormous potential was promptly relaised and pursued. Bhattacharjee's healthy crop of rubber seized soon enough the attention of the Rubber Board, which opened in 1967 its first office in the northeast at Agartala.

Another high point in this rubber story came about in 1976 with the establishment of Tripura Forest Development & Plantation Corporation Limited. The corporation adopted rehabilitation of degraded forestland through rubber plantation as a principal strategy and took up simultaneously a project to wean away a cluster of tribal families of Warangbari village of West Tripura from shifting cultivation by providing wage employment through rubber plantation. Soon after the site clearance had began, the Warangbari community got wary of permanent loss of land for shifting cultivation and an array of other livelihood necessities that the land delivered. On the face of a determined protest en masse, the corporation officials parleyed with the Warangbari villagers, who agreed to allow rubber plantation on condition that those would be allotted to them on maturity. It was amazing that the state government actually accepted the rather unusual demand. The families thus worked on daily wages under the corporation for establishment of rubber plantations in government land which would be allotted to them on maturity.

The Warangbari experience was the precursor to establishment in 1983 of a separate agency, Tripura Rehabilitation Plantation Corporation Limited, solely for economic rehabilitation of marginalised tribal families on rubber plantations. The same model was adopted mutatis mutandis in Tripura by the RD and Tribal Welfare Departments, Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council as well as the Rubber Board in its high profile Block Plantation Scheme launched for the northeast in 1992 but implemented so far only in Tripura. Around 22,000 marginalised tribal families in Tripura benefitted from the aforesaid rehabilitation packages till 2008-09. Beneficiaries earn a handsome income from sale of latex (May, 2011 price of sheet rubber is around Rs.220/- per kg) from mature plantations, which on average produce around 1300 kilograms of natural rubber per ha. The Rubber Board is now firmly entrenched in the northeast excluding Sikkim, considered unsuitable for rubber plantation. The area under rubber and production of natural rubber in the northeast in 2008-09 were 88,865 ha and 37,240 tonnes respectively as against 36,285 ha and 19,420 tonnes for the rest of the non-traditional region comprising of Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Orissa, West Bengal, Andhrapradesh and Chhattisgarh. The 11th Plan target for the northeast was set at 25,000 ha against 2,500 ha for the rest of the non-traditional region; and share of the target for Tripura alone was 12,400 ha. The advent of rubber set off a stunning transformation in the landscape and rural economy in Tripura pioneering in a way the emergence of the northeast as the principal rubber growing region in the country outside the traditional belt. The potential area (National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land use Planning) identified for rubber in the northeast is 4,50,000 ha against the actual area of 5,36,830 ha (2008-09) in the traditional region comprising of Kerala and Kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu. Bhattacharjee, the indomitable Forest Chief of Tripura, did indeed prove his point.

It would be fair at this stage to clarify that the Rubber Board officiials were technically correct in case they really had discouraged commercial cultivation of rubber in Tripura initially. Desired locality factors within the tropics for commercial cultivation of rubber are gently undulating topography with slope between 5 degrees to 15 degrees, well-distributed high rainfall and humidity; no pronounced droughts; winter, if at all, to be mild and short; and no prolonged seasonal winds, storms or cyclones. Evidently, the northeast did not fit the bill ideally. The fact that the country needed more natural rubber - a strategic raw material - to prop up its industrial growth was obviously of paramount importance. India emerged as the second largest consumer of natural rubber next to China since 2009 (in thousand tonnes: China- 3467; USA- 687 & India- 905); and it simultaneously became a net importer (1,28,000 tonnes) for the first time there since then. There was minimal scope for further growth in the traditional rubber belt and the rest of the non-traditional region; the focus as a result was on the newfound northeast.

Fortunately, rubber is fairly adaptable to some deviations from the ideal climatic requirements albeit with consequent impact on growth and productivity. Such adverse impacts to an extent can be moderated through management interventions; but it will be prudent to accept that overall performance of rubber in the northeast cannot match that of the traditional belt. The average productivity of rubber plantation in India is around 1800 kilograms per ha. The traditional belt, which accounted for 93% of production and 81% of area coverage (2008-09), largely influence the national average productivity. As against that the production in Tripura in 2010-11 was 1456 kilograms per ha (Total plantation: 53039 ha; mature plantation: 24520 ha; production: 35693 tonnes).

The national authorities adopted the agenda to double the area under rubber in the northeast over a period of ten years since 2007-08. There is no quarrel with the programme that aims at meeting the rising demand of a strategic raw material like natural rubber for industrial growth in the country. There is, however, need for caution lest there be blunders in this mad rush. The areas of concern are many; and the first and foremost is on the general preparedness in the northeast for this gigantic leap. The present administrative and extension network of the Rubber Board in the northeast under one zonal office for Tripura and another for the rest of the region for issue of permit, release of subsidy, training and technical guidance, insurance, etcetera is grossly inadequate.

Availability of genuine planting material of recommended cultivars is far too short vis-à-vis the demand. The market is flooded with spurious saplings which account for bulk of the planting material used by private growers oblivious of the disastrous implications. Neither the Rubber Board nor the government departments and organizations engazed in the rubber sector in the northeast have adequate nursery infrastructure to support the massive planting programme. To add to the malady, the Rubber Board discontinued regulation, including inspection and registration, of private rubber nurseries since 1986.

Rubber is grown in the northeast in uplands degraded and impoverished as a result of shifting cultivation. A generous input of fertilizer is therefore essential for its commercial viability. The requirement of fertliser is between 400 to 500 kilograms per ha per annum both for immature and mature plantations. Shortage of fertilizer has even otherwise been a perennial problem in the northeast due to unreliable communication links, inadequate storage facilities and inefficient distribution network; and with the priority that agriculture enjoys, rubber ends up as the worst victim.

Almost the entire rubber latex in the northeast is processed in to sheets for sale as a large majority of the plantations are in small holdings. About four cubic meters of fuel wood is burnt to produce one tonne of dry and smoked rubber sheets. Use of biogas in addition from latex processing facilities to reduce fuel wood consumption for the purpose, though introduced by the Rubber Board in a few centres, were almost totally ignored due to lack of confidence or awareness, high cost of installation, absence of local implementing agencies and reliable post-installation services. In Tripura alone a stock of wood corresponding to around 1000 ha of forestland would have been burnt to process 35693 tonnes of rubber produced during 2010-11. Vast tracts of the countryside in certain parts of Tripura are almost devoid of any tree other than rubber. Tripura forests too are under heightened stress.

While most rubber planters might sound happy with the handsome returns from their plantations in Tripura, their women folks often express their desperation in missing the bamboo shoots, delicious wild vegetables, tuber crops and medicinal herbs delivered by the erstwhile natural vegetation. Tripura witnessed an extra-ordinary expansion of rubber plantation in recent times (2005-06:- 31673 ha & 2010-11:- 53039 ha); and many in the villages and the civil society now blame the large-scale substitution of indigenous vegetation by rubber for the drying hill streams and village wells. They express concern about the foul-smelling effluent from rubber sheet processing units that pollute the soil, water and the air they are to live on. Remedial measures are often listed but hardly ever put in place and practiced. These concerns, real without a doubt, will grow in enormity with time and there is seemingly no serious action plan or endeavor in sight for remedies.
It is appropriate under the circumstances to explore, identify and implement alternative farming models for commercial rubber cultivation in the northeast that meet the livelihood needs and other aspirations of the ethnic communities, who depend a lot more on the land with its indigenous biodiversity, compared to those in the traditional rubber belt in Kerala. There is an urgent need for dedicated trial in the northeast to promote rubber in pure blocks of one acre or more separated by blocks of existing natural vegetation or new plantations of trees bearing edibles and trees for other utilities chosen by the local communities. The farmers should be encouraged for intercropping under immature rubber plantations with tuber crops, legumes, etcetera to ensure food security and income during the long gestation period by linking subsidy to compliance of this planting model.

It is time one appreciates the reality that rubber, despite its apparent acceptance in the northeast, is not a natural choice. It is essentially a subsidy driven programme to meet a national objective that also helps the northeast. There have been other developments in respect of other plant resources. Technology for new generation value-added products from bamboo with a rapidly growing export market has put this tall grass in the center-stage for industrial development in the northeast, home to two thirds of the growing stock of bamboo in India. Economic growth based on bamboo will suit the social and cultural milieu and will be a prudent option for the ecologically fragile region. There would be other worthy farming and non-farming options suited to this region; and to write them off in favour of the alien rubber would be irrational.

In fine, there remains, with due regards to the great potential of rubber, a strong case for drawing up an inclusive futuristic land use plan for horticulture and plantation crops in the northeast by an expert group constituted by the NEC with members from the ICAR, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, the Rubber Board, National Bamboo Mission, National Medicinal Plants Board and the Spices Board. Meanwhile, the present target for ten years for creation of rubber plantation in the northeast may be downsized right away by the Rubber Board in view of the constraints illustrated and to explore alternatives for optimal utilisation of uplands in the northeast for sustainable benefit.

State wise area under rubber in the northeast as in 2008-09 (Source: The Rubber Board):


Geog. area (km2)

Area suitable for rubber (ha)

Area planted (ha)

Arunachal Pradesh




































The author can be reached at

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Unquestionably consider that that you stated. Your favourite justification appeared to be
at the web the simplest factor to take into accout of.

I say to you, I certainly get irked while people think about issues that they
just do not recognize about. You controlled to hit the nail upon the highest as
well as outlined out the whole thing with no need side effect
, other people can take a signal. Will likely be back to get more.
Thank you

Also visit my web-site; perfect biotics

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Feel free to visit my webpage: the venus factor does it work so well

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Hi there, just wanted to say, I loved this blog post.
It was practical. Keep on posting!

My web-site ... Ian Leaf Tax Fraud

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

You can definitely see your skills within the work you write.

The world hopes for more passionate writers such as you who aren't afraid
to say how they believe. At all times go after your heart.

my homepage ::

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

I was suggested this web site by my cousin. I am not sure whether
this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble.
You are amazing! Thanks!

My webpage garcinia cambogia free trial review (Shelley)

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Stamina Elite has in constructed HR monitor hand grip and a large display to show the stats.

Lookk at my page: Lakesha

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought this
post was good. I do not know who you are but definitely you are going
to a famous blogger if you are not already ;) Cheers!

My web-site ... juicing detox

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Hi there! Would you mind if I share your blog
with my twitter group? There's a lot of people that I think would really enjoy your content.

Please let me know. Cheers

Look at my web blog; probiotic america

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Take a look at my webpage Pearlene

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Another unabashed comedy is "The Cannonball Run," which is the
oldest of the top rated-grossing racing movies, acquiring
been launched in 1981. Do you operate for a Pac-ten workforce or a SEC crew?
On the other hand, his testimony was one particular of eight presented that day prior to the subcommittee.

Every single time it detects a brand new internet web page,
it withholds its rightful rating for a time time period even though it
determines irrespective of no matter whether your net page is normally a authentic,
credible, extended-phrase website. The essay is quite fantastic,
and does, as the electronic mail normally says "hit the nail on the head." Nevertheless, it was
not written by Leno. Cee Lo Green is at the moment a single of the mentors on American Idol's most current competitor,
The Voice.

Justin Glenn, Anthony Gobern, and Adam Lengthy
all had the talent to perform last season but thankfully spent a yr acquiring stronger.
Why would they be scared of anybody else in the Pac 10 or any other school.
The enjoyable began on lap 31 as Tony Stewart intentionally cut across the
front of Clint Boyer's Jack Daniel's #07 automobile.

Nevertheless, I think the reply lies just a bit deeper.

But don't anxiety; research endorse that the top eleven search
engines like google account for all over 90% of world wide web visitors.
Once the victim says they never ever received notification of jury duty, the scammer proceeds to "verify" information and facts by requesting private data.
Asking Head Coach Mike Krzyzewski, it's about just
trying to play up to last 12 months's degree.

This also has to do with the truth that they have the possibility to be extra idealistic.
To leave a game out of a Canon is to say this kind of a game
is not major ample to be well worth remembering and
most most likely this game will be forgotten, if it hasn't
been previously. It teaches you mental toughness, correct transitions,
race day fueling, and probably most importantly, how
to get all individuals butterflies in your abdomen to fly in buy.

If folks like you they will enable continue to keep your honor snack box
sincere. While Atlanta and Georgia are not
listed in these top eleven hack for android,
there was a marked elevated in people living under the poverty level amongst from 2008 to 2009 - the
last twelve months. Henson has added 25 lbs in the offseason and is wanting at a significant yr.
Being in the Last Ten on American Idol was pretty much a
certainty for Cook merely because his performances seemed so properly studied and so well

And soon after tying up this considerably cash your account will several times want
a reduce of the action, which can be as substantially as 30%.
The plan is that by boycotting specified stations, supposedly provided by Arabian producers, or
boycotting fuel for a time period, this kind of
as 8 days, the group work will get gasoline charges to decline.
The film stars the voices of Owen Wilson and Larry the Cable Man as Lightning McQueen and Mater, who endure a number of setbacks on the way to California.

my weblog - sci-fi movie full length - Cliff,

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Hi, Neat post. There's an issue together with your website
in web explorer, could test this? IE nonetheless is
the market leader and a good section Silk of Morroco Oil folks will pass
over your excellent writing due to this problem.

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Pretty! This has been an extremely wonderful post. Thank you for supplying these details.

Here is my blog post; Aurora Mineral Plus

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

My page :: Tina

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Greetings from Colorado! I'm bored to death at work so I decided to check out
your blog on my iphone during lunch break. I love the knowledge you provide here and can't
wait to take a look when I get home. I'm shocked at how fast your blog loaded on my mobile ..
I'm not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, excellent blog!

Review my web site Skin Youth Eye Serum

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Check out my web page the venus factor (Gay)

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

It's a shame you don't have a donate button! I'd certainly donate
to this excellent blog! I guess for now i'll settle for book-marking
and adding your RSS feed to my Google account.
I look forward to fresh updates and will share this website with my Facebook group.
Chat soon!

Review my blog :: liberty reserve

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Thanks in support of sharing such a good idea, post is
good, thats why i have read it entirely

Feel free to visit my blog: secure home profits

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Normally I do not read post on blogs, but I wish to say that this write-up very compelled me to try and do it!
Your writing style has been amazed me. Thank you,
very nice post.

my site probiotic america reviews

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

It is appropгіate time tо mɑκе ѕomе
ρlans ffߋr tɦе
f&#6489t&#6489ге and іt іѕ іmе tο b&#6513 ɦappу.
ӏ hɑν&#6513 reɑԀ tɦѕ ρκst and if ӏ ϲο&#6489&#8572&#8574 Ι ѡаnt
tο ѕսցցеѕat
у&#11423&#6489 feѡ іnt&#6513rеѕting tɦіngѕ
οг tі&#11427ѕ.

ΜаʏЬe уߋu can wгіt&#6513 neҳt ɑгtіϲ&#8572&#6513ѕ геfeгtіng tο t&#1211іѕ artіc&#8572е.
I ԝant t&#11423 гeɑ&#8574 eν&#6513n m&#11423re tҺіngѕ abοut іt!

А&#8572ѕ&#11423 &#7456іѕit mү ա&#6513b sіtгe
- expensive homes

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Keep on working, great job!

Also visit my weblog: Ian Andrews Leaf

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Add Limitless Cash Fallout Shelter Newest & Updated Version Created
byy Obtain : Crew!

my web-site; Fallout Shelter Hack

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Hello there! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be
ok. I'm undoubtedly enjoying your blog and look
forward to new posts.

My page probiotic america reviews

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

WOW just what I was looking for. Came here by searching
for creditos rapidos y faciles rapidos

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

And so this day is skip to have everything special.
A uniform choir will make a great first impression for the audience without having to sing a note.
However, 17-year-old You - Tube sensation Austin Mahone beat out
her and finally took home the prize. This can be retained forever as
cherished memories of the good times that have been shared.
s blood, red- to symbolize love for all the beautiful things.

An alternative is to wear a red dress with nude shoes and a necklace in shades of light and dark brown. A
recession can bring the best out in people because it's the time they realize how alone they are.

Here is my page; put on your red dress and slip on your high heels lyrics

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Some Hollywood liberals are actually calling for a
Constitutional amendment to bring the homosexual agenda in the military and throughout the
nation up to par with the emerging social acceptance of the gay life.
Even though the tolerance levels of any system are great, a small error or problem can bring all of it crashing down. For those who acquire in hassle, at level fifty, you'll be able to use the Infernal at every twenty mins Cool Down.

My webpage - juguetes de los minions video

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

This is my first time visit at here and i am really pleassant to
read all at alone place.

Feel free to visit my web site; perfect biotics

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

At this time it sounds like Drupal is the top blogging platform available right now.
(from what I've read) Is that what you are using on your

my web-site; best lawyer

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Quality content is the secret to attract the viewers to go to see the website, that's
what this web site is providing.

Feel free to surf to my webpage :: Jacklyn

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

My spouse and I absolutely love your blog and find
almost all of your post's to be just what I'm looking for.
Do you offer guest writers to write content for you?
I wouldn't mind writing a post or elaborating on a lot of the subjects you write
concerning here. Again, awesome web site!

my web blog ... apple cider vinegar acne (Damion)

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

my blog; Douglas

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

That is a really good tip particularly to those frsh to the
blogosphere. Sholrt but very accurate information… Appreciate
your sharing this one. A must read post!

My page - background check trial (Jade)

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

WOW just what I was looking for. Came here by
searching for

My webpage: perfect biotics

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

It is perfect time to make a few plans for the future and it is time to be happy.
I have read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you few fascinating issues or advice.
Maybe you can write subsequent articles regarding this article.

I desire to read more things about it!

my web blog ... doxycycline acne (Amado)

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Your method of telling everything in this article is in fact pleasant, every one be
capable of without difficulty be aware of it, Thanks a lot.

Also visit my web site: acne scar removal (Monika)

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Hi friends, how is all, and what you want to say regarding this article, in my view its in fact amazing designed for me.

Have a look at my page: time management games (

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if
you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.

I've been looking for a plug-in like this for quite
some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.
Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy
reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

Here is my site Menopausal skin

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Piece of writing writing is also a excitement,
if you be acquainted with afterward you can write or else it is complex to write.

Also visit my webpage - game play

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Exercise: It was a total turnaround for her when she started.
For Kim Kardashian, fans who identify with her and
respect her sense of fashion buy her clothes and cosmetic lines.
But once you've been there, you will remember it forever for
its outstanding natural splendors or the captivating 3000-years old history.

my blog post - kim kardashian game money cheat

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Because the admin of this site is working, no
question very shortly it will be famous, due to
its quality contents.

Feel free to visit my weblog: Ian Leaf Tax

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Hiya! Quick question that's totally off topic. Do you know how
to make your site mobile friendly? My blog looks weird when viewing from my iphone.
I'm trying to find a template or plugin that might be able to resolve this problem.
If you have any suggestions, please share. Appreciate it!

My web page True Prostate Flow

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

My partner and I stumbled over here different web
address and thought I should check things out.
I like what I see so now i'm following you.
Look forward to going over your web page again.

Here is my webpage; Encante

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Nice blog here! Also your site loads up fast!
What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host?
I wish my web site loaded up as quickly as
yours lol

Here is my weblog - gta 5 Solo Money Glitch

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

I've been surfing online greater than 3 hours today, but I never discovered any fascinating article like
yours. It is pretty price sufficient for me.
In my view, if all site owners and bloggers made excellent content as you probably did,
the web might be a lot more useful than ever before.

Also visit my homepage Beautemer

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

A lehanga comes in multi-colored styles and color palates
with beautiful handiwork and unique, beautiful
shapes - like straight cut and A-line. The feature attractive features of these shoes
are flexible straps around ankle as well as
include floral prints along with cuts around toe.
Just be sure to have matching belts as well, nothing
looks more ridiculous than a man wearing a pair of black shoes with a brown belt.
Fold the sleeves in toward the garment, while smoothing
out wrinkles. You can fill them with small sized tops once
you clear the interview. You've looked up the company information, their history, their core management team and systems, as well
as the person that you would report to once you get the job.
Modesty and dark colors reflect the conservative nature of the Laws.

my web blog: black dress shoes augusta ga craigslist

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Wonderful blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News.

Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News?

I've been trying for a while but I never seem to get there!

My web page; perfect biotics reviews

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

What's up to every body, it's my first pay a quick visit of this webpage; this webpage
contains awesome and truly excellent data for readers.

Also visit my site: probiotic america reviews

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

naturally like your web-site however you need to test the spelling
on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very troublesome to
inform the truth on the other hand I'll definitely come back again.

My weblog probiotic america reviews

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so much about this,
like you wrote the book in it or something.
I think that you could do with some pics to drive the message home a bit, but other
than that, this is great blog. An excellent read.
I'll definitely be back.

Here is my blog post :: forum hosting

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

Once you've made your appointment for a consultation with a kitchen designer,
you're going to have to put away the scrapbooks filled
with hundreds of pages torn from home design magazines
and make informed and well-thought-out decisions for your new kitchen. 1 oz bottle of
Tabac Original EDC splash will set you back less than $15 online, deeply discounted (try e - Bay or amazon. Nonetheless people still object to flashing, despite frontal nudity on TV.
The delivery speed is a little longer, usually taking a month or even more.
Tips For How To Buy Cheap USB Hubs & Switches products.
The line also utilizes fruits, algae, flowers, and Dead Sea salt.

my blog post women s clothing amazon app store

Reply to comment | The Tripura Foundation

It's in fact very difficult in this full of activity life
to listen news on Television, therefore I only use web for tgat purpose, and
obtain the latest news.

my site hot women on video